This page is the additions, discussions from 1995
Back Stroke Finish and Breaststroke Sculling Question
There is a clarification from FINA regarding the backstroke turn posted in the rules
section. posted in January 1995
This is taken from a note from Anneliese in Dec. 1994
Effective January 1, 1995, the breaststroke rule will read: "The elbows shall be under the water except for the last stroke at the finish of the prescribed distance." This would disqualify SOME of the swimmers doing the 'new' over-the-water breaststroke recovery. Many of our swimmers, although recovering the hands over the water still keep their elbows under the water. They would still be legal. In any event, the rule does not take effect until January 1st so for now its "status quo". The USS Rules Committee will be issuing further clarification of the new rule as soon as FINA's interpretation is received. Anneliese Eggert, National Officials Chairman
Under the new backstroke rule, WHICH WILL NOT BE EFFECTIVE UNTIL JANUARY 1, 1995, "Once the swimmer has left the position on the back, there shall be no kick or arm pull independent of a continuous turning action." The word "flotation" was removed by FINA, however, you will note the rule still refers to a "continuous turning action". Undoubtedly some "gliding" will be allowed, but we are waiting for further clarification from FINA before the USS Rules Committee issues a more definitive interpretation. That interpretation will be made available before January 1, 1995. In the meantime, flotation independent of a continuous turning action is still illegal. Anneliese Eggert, National Officials Chairman
Date: Thursday, January 5, 1995 2:08pm
Re: 95 rule changes
FINA has not yet issued its interpretations on the new breaststroke and backstroke rules -- if you post the following information it should be made clear that these are USS's temporary guidelines ONLY until further word is received from FINA:
BREASTSTROKE: Elbows must be under the water: Guideline will be that some part of the elbow must remain in contact with the water, i.e. on or under the water. Intent of the rule is to prevent a clearly "over the water" butterfly stroke.
BACKSTROKE: We will call DQ's essentially as we do now, i.e. swimmer can kick while arm is pulling, EXCEPT that "flotation" in itself will not be a DQ. Therefore, if the swimmer is just floating (gliding) before or after the arm pull (without kicks or an extra armpull), this would not be a DQ.
Let me know if you have any questions.
Date: Monday, February 6, 1995 7:46pm /Rules From: PCarney Msg#: 81077 To: ** ALL ** Re: backstroke turn Please Copy and Distribute to All LSC Officials DATE: February 5, 1995 TO: Officials Chairs General Chairs Permanent Offices FROM: Peter Carney, Chairman, Rules Committee RE: Backstroke Turns Sometimes the more things change, the more things remain the same. Despite wording changes in both the FINA and USS backstroke turn rules, there is NO CHANGE in the way backstroke turns should be judged in 1995. FINA changed its wording merely to clarify its intent. The USS changes used similar language. Thus both rules represent clarification, not change. To avoid pulling out your rulebook as you read this, the 1995 USS backstroke turn rule (101.3.3, page 17) follows: Turns -- Upon completion of each length, some part of the swimmer must touch the wall. During the turn the shoulders may turn past the vertical toward the breast, after which a continuous single arm pull or a continuous double arm pull may be used to initiate the turn. Once the swimmer has left the position on the back, there shall be no kick or arm pull independent of a continuous turning action. The shoulder must be at or past the vertical toward the back when the swimmer leaves the wall. The key to a proper interpretation of the backstroke turn rule is the phrase "continuous turning action", ie. a uniform, unbroken motion with no pauses, once the shoulders pass the vertical. Removal of the word "flotation" from prior interpretations was intended as a clarification only, since "flotation" was ambiguous to much of the world. To summarize, in 1995, there is NO CHANGE in the way the backstroke turn should be judged. Should you have any questions, feel free to contact me. Address 1501-I Crescent Lane / Matthews, NC 28105 Home 704/ 847 7462 Voice Mail 704/ 847 7490 Fax 704/ 847 7490 (press 22+
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